by: Fakhri Motiwala
This narrative details experiences of working in the highly controlled domain of imports and exports before 1991. Imports and exports were governed by the archaic Imports and Exports Control Act (1947), a law that was obsolete and unresponsive to th...
by: Swaminathan Aiyar
Like most commodities, foreign exchange too was chronically short during the License-Permit Raj, especially during the “garibi hatao” phase of the early 1970s. So, concerning films demanding foreign exchange, the government allocated only token amoun...
by: Sanjeev Gandhi
This narrative highlights two key areas pertaining to liberalization. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi recounts the difficulty in obtaining kerosene, due to stringent quotas and limits on distribution. The ‘kerosene license’ referenced to in the story, is a documen...

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India before 1991: Stories of life under the License Raj

Almost half of India is born after 1991 economic reforms. To make sure that they understand the lessons of history, at the 25th anniversary of the reforms, Centre for Civil Society aims to bring to light human interest stories from across the country highlighting the life under the license raj as well as the crucial role that liberalization played in improving the lives of our people. The reforms were proof of the acceptance of the value of economic freedom, whose importance we need to continue to advocate. This research will provide a greater understanding of the long-term impact of liberal policy reforms as well as the value that open markets have and continue to bring into our lives in contemporary times.

Crowd Source Stories

Short videos, audio messages, photo essays and articles from individuals representing all sections of society through online platforms, in-house research, partnerships with profession- specific associations and groups.